Kinds of Pronouns
Pronouns are one of the parts of speech. which plays a major role in the English language. They are used in places of nouns to remove repetitions of nouns. There are 11 kinds of pronouns.
|S#||Title of Pronouns||S#||Titles of the pronouns|
|1||Personal Pronoun?||7||7) Reflexive Pronoun (“Self”, “selves”)|
|2||Possessive Pronoun?||8||8) Exclamatory Pronoun|
|3||Interrogative pronoun:||9||Emphatic Pronouns|
|4||Relative Pronoun?||10||Reciprocal Pronoun?|
|5||Demonstrative Pronoun?||11||Distributive Pronoun|
Pronouns replace the nouns in order to remove repetitions of nouns. Personal pronouns are used for persons. But among them, only one Pronoun is used for animals and things. There are seven personal pronouns “I, we, you, he, she, it, they.” In grammatical terms, there are three-person pronouns. 1st person is “I, we” the second person is “you” and the third person is “he, she, it, and they” which depends upon the number (singular or plural) or gender of the noun.
For more details. Click here.
Possessive Pronouns show possession and ownership of the noun in the sentence. They are used at the end of sentences like objective pronouns. Possessive pronouns are “mine, ours, yours, his, hers, theirs, yours. They replace a noun that is already defined in the sentence. Like: I like this car. It is mine.
Now the car is already defined in the sentence which is replaced by the possessive pronoun. ‘Mine‘.
|Subjective Pronouns||Possessive Pronouns|
Interrogative Pronouns are the ‘WH pronouns’ that are used to form special questions. Let’s define interrogative pronouns by the meaning of the word ‘interrogative’. This word derives from the verb interrogate, which means to query or enquire. Interrogative pronouns are those that are used to ask questions and function as pronouns.
For example who are you? Whom did you talk to? In these two sentences ‘who’ and ‘whom’ work as pronouns and make questions.
These are five interrogative pronouns: who, whom, what, which, and whose.
Notice: Two things to keep in mind when using interrogative pronouns.
1) The formula of interrogative Pronoun:
Interrogative Pronoun + auxiliary verbs/ model verbs + main verbs
- Who are you?
- What could you bring?
- To whom did you talk?
- Whom did you see today?
- With whom did you talk?
- Whose is this pen?
- Which is your pen?
2) How to find out if it works as a pronoun?
These words should modify the noun. I am going to tell you the method to find out whether it modifies the noun or it does not.
Who are you? Answer this question. “I am John.” the answer of who is ‘John’ is a noun, and this noun can be changed by a pronoun. ‘Him’ I know him. Instead of John, we can use him. So, who is an interrogative pronoun in these sentences?
Next example: like how are you? Similar questions, only the Wh-word is changed to how instead of ‘who’. Answer the questions. I am fine. Now fine is the answer to how, which is not a noun. It works as an adjective and tells the condition of a person. So how is modifying the main verb, that’s why how an interrogative adverb, is ‘not a pronoun? For more detail.
Pronouns replace nouns, what are relative pronouns? Relative pronouns are used to connect two clauses. In additions. They are used after the preceding nouns (people, things, animals, or ideas.) to which it is referring. For example “the man, who is very brave. Or “the teacher, whom we talked to.
Relative pronouns are “who, whom, that, which, whose, when, why, where, whoever, whomever, whenever, wherever.
|who||person||The man, who is kind|
|Whom||person||The man whom we talk to|
|That||Persons, things, and animals||The table that I took.|
|Which||Things, idea||I like the picture, which she made.|
|Whose||shows possession||The cat, whose tail is long.|
|When||For time.||At the same time when she comes.|
|Why||Reason, idea||I don’t know why she is late.|
|Where||Place||UK where I live.|
Relative Pronoun Examples
Check out the examples given for relative pronouns. Read them carefully and use them in your own sentences too.
- He is the man whom we know.
- She is a student who got a position.
- Karachi is a beautiful city where we live.
- This is the table that I broke.
- The man, whom we know, is ill today.
- Whoever comes on time, we will give them the paper.
- I will leave the class whenever the principal arrives.
- This is the idea that was given by him.
- The man, who is standing outside the door, is our principal.
- Let’s join the class, whoever will be the teacher.
- I found the student who fled from class.
Demonstrative Pronouns are ‘this, that, these, & those” and are used to point out something or someone. The number of these pronouns is specific. There are only 4 demonstrative pronouns.
Singular Demonstrative pronouns:
- This and that
These two pronouns are used for singular nouns. They follow singular auxiliary verbs (is, was, has, will). Like:
- This is a car. (thing)
- This was my car. (thing)
- That is a car. (thing)
- That was near to you. (idea)
- That has an extended tail. (animal)
What is the difference between this and that?
This is used for singular and near nouns but is used for far singular nouns.
2) These and those.
These and those are used for plural nouns. They follow plural auxiliary verbs (are, were, have had, will) like:
- These are cars. (things)
- These were cars. (things)
- Those bags are blue. (color of things)
- Those are friendly people. (person)
- Those are long legs animals. (animals)
There is a slight difference between demonstrative adjectives and demonstrative pronouns. So, do get bewildered. The same words are used as demonstrative adjectives too, but they are used before the noun to point out that noun.
- I saw this man on the road.
- Do you like that car?
- I have bought those books.
If you really do not know about the name of the noun, gender of the noun, quantity of the noun, or even qualify of the noun. Then what you are supposed to use in place of a noun? The answer is, we use indefinite pronouns. What are indefinite Pronouns? They are the words used in place of unknown nouns. Like:
- Someone is knocking on the door.
- I want to go somewhere.
- I want to drink little water.
- There is nobody in the room.
- There is not anybody in the car.
- There is nothing in the car.
The indefinite pronouns are used in place of unknown/ uncertain nouns (person, things & place). There are some common indefinite pronouns that are mostly used in our conversations.
Some, Little, few, all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, somebody & someone.
Indefinite Pronoun’s meaning and examples.
|Indefinite Pronouns||Example within sentences||Used for noun|
|Someone||Someone is climbing the wall.||Person. (more formal)|
|Somebody||There was somebody knocking on the door.||person (less formal)|
|Something||She has something in the packet.||things|
|Somewhere||I want to go somewhere.||Place.|
|Some||Some of the papers are checked.||amount(countable)|
|Some||I want to drink some water.||amount (uncountable)|
|Less||There is less water in the jug.||amount (uncountable)|
|Few||Few students could pass the class.||Countable nouns.|
|Fewer||A fewer number of people recite holy books.||Countable nouns (number)|
|Little||I drank little water after food.||Amount (uncountable)|
|Much||There is too much noise.||A large amount.|
|Enough||It is enough, don’t shout anymore.||As much is required.|
|another||Additional/different person or thing.||She needs another pen to write.|
|Either||Either john or Kamran should come.||From two one.|
|Each||Each of them could ride the horse.||Everyone from two or more people.|
|Neither||I don’t need either of them.||Used for two; none of them.|
|Both||They fired both of the workers.||For two persons.|
|Any||Any of the men could come forward.||For quantity.|
|All||All the people are present in the hall.||Quantity|
|Anything||There is not anything in the car.||Things.|
|Many||Many things are remaining to do.||Quantity of nouns.|
|More||More than 10 people should come in.||Greater number of nouns.|
|Most||He is the most beautiful girl.||Above all.|
|None||None of my friends came to the party.||Not any.|
|Several||Several times, we requested him to join the group.||More than two|
|Anyone||Anyone can speak English in the class.||Person. No one.|
Pronouns are used in place of nouns to avoid repetition of nouns, but what about reflexive pronouns? Reflexive pronouns in English also called self-pronouns. More simple when the action is performed by anyone without the help of an outsider. They are used at the end of sentences and reflect back to the subject. Their structure is created with ‘self’ in singular and ‘selves’ in plurals at the end of possessive adjectives. For instance:
Usages of the reflexive pronoun.
Reflexive pronouns are used at the end of the sentences, and it refers back to the subject. Like:
- I washed the cloth myself.
- She plays the music herself.
- He locked the door himself.
- It cuts the rope itself.
- You drive the car yourself. (Singular pronouns.)
- We went to the park by ourselves.
- They cleaned the room themselves.
- You should bring everything yourselves.
We can use reflexive pronouns after subject also to emphasize more. It is called emphatic pronouns. So if you want to emphasize more on something do use them after the subject of the sentence. Examples within the sentences: click here
A pronoun (WH word) that is used to show sudden emotions (surprise) is called an exclamatory pronoun. There is only one exclamatory pronoun which is what. It follows an exclamation mark (!). Whenever we become surprised suddenly we these words which replace the noun. In that case, it is working as an exclamatory pronoun.
- What! You do not know my name.
- What! You did not believe him.
- What! She does not accept me.
- What! They have come yet.
- What! We could not bring him to the party.
What is the only “WH” word which functions as an exclamatory pronoun? The rest of the WH words are not. We must mix up exclamatory adjectives and exclamatory sentences with them.
9) Emphatic Pronouns
Emphatic Pronouns (intensive pronoun) is like reflexive pronoun structurally, but their purpose is different. We use emphatic pronouns to show sudden emotions (surprise, anger, and excitement). These words consist of “myself, himself, herself, ourselves, ourselves, itself, yourself, and yourselves”. They are used to show that the activities are done without any help and occur subsequent to the subject.
- I myself wrote the letter.
- She herself found the solutions.
- He himself cleaned the room.
- You yourself should cook the food.
- They themselves arranged the party.
Each other and one another are called reciprocal pronouns. These pronouns are used to show two or more people are performing the same (mutual action) activity at the same time. In addition. The result and benefit of the action may be the same or different.
How to use reciprocal pronouns?
Each other and one another are only the two reciprocal pronouns in the English Language. Each other is used for two persons only. Like John and khan are beating each other. So there are only two people and they were fighting. As result, they bet on each other. The outcome of this action affects both of them.
‘One another is used for more than two persons. This means, if any action is carried out by more than two persons at the same time it puts an effect and results on all of them. Like the children were shouting at one another. Or the girls at the pool are throwing water at one another.
Check out more examples of reciprocal pronouns:
- Kamran and Farhan gave gifts to each other.
- That two cats bite each other.
- The mother and daughter were greeting each other.
- You should hug each other to finish the conflict.
- All the members of the team appreciated one another.
- Do they see one another on the ground?
- The problem was solved by each other.
- I don’t know why they abuse each other.
- All the people are slapping one another in the party hall.
- The rugby players were dribbling the one another.
- I don’t see respecting each other nowadays between brothers.
Distributive pronouns are used to talk about persons and things individually. We talk about the person and group of people and things one by one rather than collectively. Distributive pronouns are either, neither, both, each, and none. They are singular words followed by singular verbs too.
- Either of the students come on time.
- Neither of the students comes on time.
Either, neither, each, both, any, and none
Examples of within the sentence. click the link.