kinds of conjunctions
English Grammars English Structures

What is Conjunction? (kinds & examples)

What are Conjunctions?

A conjunction is used to connect words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. We call them words joiners also.  In this article, we study about kinds of conjunctions in detail. It has many kinds. Conjunctions are like transitional words/ phrases, but there is a slight difference. So for understanding better usages and differences, we have to learn them correctly.

Example:

  • Akram and John played very well.
  • He went but did not tell anyone.
  • She cannot find the paper nor can I.

Note: The above examples can make everything clear about the usage of conjunctions. So let’s study the kinds of it.

KINDS OF CONJUNCTION:

  1. Coordinating Conjunctions
  2. Subordinating Conjunctions

A) Coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) join the two equal words or things to one another: like

   Phrases to phrases,          clauses to clauses,             words to words,         

phrase to phrase We will stay in the park or in the hotel.
Students shall do their classwork in the classroom or in the garden
clause to clauseWhat you say and what you do are two different things.
word to word   Players must have energy and stamina.

Coordinating conjunctions go in between items joined, not at the beginning or end.

There are seven coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so; and they’re used to connect words, clauses, or phrases of equal grammatical weight. For example, they might be used to connect two or more nouns, phrases, independent clauses, phrases, etc. They also establish certain relationships:

  • And = means addition
  • Or = establishes positive choice
  • But = means contrast
  • Nor = establishes negative choice
  • Yet = shows the contrast
  • So = shows results
  • For = shows the reason

Sentences with Coordinating Conjunctions

  • khan and Sosano got first positions. (Two nouns)
  • In a football match player attack and defend. (Two verbs)
  • Khan wanted to devote all his time to writing, so Sosano worked two full-time jobs. (Two clauses)
  • On vacations, students shall play or go on travel.  (Two phrases)

Kinds of Coordinating Conjunction:

  1. Cumulative or copulative conjunction
  2. Adversative conjunction
  3. Disjunctive or alternative conjunction
  4. Illative conjunction.

1)Cumulative or copulative conjunction:

We use cumulative conjunction (and, both…and, as well as, not only…but also) to join two statements that are facts.

For Example:

  • Khan wrote the letters and John printed them.
  • The thief got up and walked away on the roof.
  • They approached us and asked questions.
  • He got the first position in the class as well as in the whole school.
  • Both the doctor and patient were brought to the room.
  • Not only he broke the glass but also the table.

2) Adversative conjunction

Adversative conjunction expresses opposition or contrast between two statements.

We use adversative conjunction to express opposition or contrast between two statements/ thoughts.

 Examples:

 ( but, still, yet, whereas, while, nevertheless.)

  1. The person was thin but strong.
  2. He has found her still unhappy.
  3. I have worked hard yet I could not find the solution.
  4. There is too much rush when the hero comes.
  5. There were fewer people nevertheless the food was destroyed.

3) Disjunctive or alternative conjunction

We use disjunctive conjunction to express two alternatives 

 Examples:

(or, either…or, neither… nor, otherwise, else.)

  1. We should accept or pay the charge.
  2. Either John or I should do the work.
  3. Neither I will pay nor will I go.
  4. The homework should be completed otherwise the teacher won’t let us in the class.

4) Illative conjunction

We use an Illative conjunction to express an inference (result). One phrase refers to the next phrase.

Example: “for” “so”

  1. He went to the doctor, for he was ill.
  2. She is kind, for she was selected.
  3. They were accused, so the police arrested them.

Punctuation Note:

  • While coordinating conjunction joins two words, or phrases, no comma should be placed before the conjunction.  And if coordinating conjunction joining three or more words, or phrases creates a series and requires commas between the elements.

Phrases:       in the ground, at the park, or by the road. 

Words:          Coffee, food, and milk.

          Example:

  1. John drink the coffee, so Khan ate the food.
  2. I like going to play on the ground, but not at the park.


Coordinating conjunction joining two independent clauses creates a compound sentence and requires a comma before the coordinating conjunction.

5) Subordinating Conjunctions:

We use subordinating conjunctions with dependent clauses to join them with the main clause.

Examples: although, after, before, because, how, if, once, since, so that, until, unless, when

  1.  I attended the class although I was ill.
  2. We should finish the class before he gets worse.
  3.  Because he could not find the person, we did not pay him.
  4. I will drive if the car is updated.
  5. Since she has come, the room is cleaned.

Subordinating conjunctions also join two clauses together, but it makes the clause next to it dependent. because it is a subordinating conjunction. if we use it with any clause that clause will be dependent. for more check out the picture.

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conjunctions

Subordinating conjunction may appear at the beginning or between two clauses in a sentence.

So if the dependent clause comes at the beginning of the sentence do use a comma between the two clauses. If in at the end no need for a comma.
E.g. we did not eat the food though she cooked it.

Usages of the following conjunctions.

ConjunctionsMeaningExample within the sentence.
AfterLater than the timeAfter we arrived, he took us home. They rescued us after we made an accident.
AlthoughDespite the factAlthough she was ill, she attended the class She came to the class although she was ill.
AsWhen something is known or expected use ‘as’As we mentioned, he did the same He played well as we mentioned.  
BecauseIt shoes reasonI watched the movie because it was interesting. Because he was kind, we selected him.
BeforeEarlier the timeBefore you leave the home, come to the kitchen. Come to the kitchen before you leave the home.
HowIn what manner or wayHow did you speak, let me know. Let them go, how it is possible?
IfUsed to talk about the result of the effect of sth that may happen or be true.It would be good if he join us. If we work hard, we will pass the exam.
OnceAs soon asIt’s really easy, once you learn. Once you learn to drive, it is very easy.  
SinceWe use to explain the reason for another statement.Since you have played well, you can win. You can win the game since you have played well.
ThanIt is used to comparisonMy brother is better than him  
ThatWe use it with a clause that states reason or purpose.I painted well that he gave me money.  
WhenFor the duration of timeWhen I came, he was ill. He was ill when I came.
WhereWe use it for places where something happened.We went to a party where he danced. Where he was killed, I did not see.
WhileDuring the time sth happenedIt rained a lot while we were at home. While he was ill, we met him.
UntilUp to the timeWe waited in the station until the train came. Until the owner came, we did not touch.


Kinds of subordinating conjunctions

There are nine types of sub-ordinating conjunctions which totally depend upon the meaning

a) Subordinating conjunction of time:  (show time)

  E.g.

  • We went the home after you left the game.                    
  •  It was completed before we wanted it
  • They were freed before the bill was passed.

b) Subordinating conjunction of place (shows the place)

 E.g.

  • She can visit wherever she likes.
  •  I searched where I was asked to.
  • Wherever I go, she is present there.

c) Subordinating conjunction of reason (it tells the reason why?)

 E.g.

  • We should find him because he is guilty.
  • I shall drive the car because he is drunk.
  • We did not go to the park as it was raining.

Subordinating conjunction of manner       (It shows the manner)

 E.g

  • Parents must nourish the children on how to behave.
  • We told him how to speak.

d) Subordinating conjunction of purpose  (shows the purpose)

E.g.  

  • We eat so that we may live.   
  • The man cooked well so that everyone should eat.

e) Subordinating conjunction of result or consequence  (shows the result/outcome)

E.g.

  • It was so foggy that all were invisible.               
  • He performed so well that we appreciated him.          

f) Subordinating conjunction of condition (show the condition of action.)

 E.g.

  • We have to manage the situation of whether the teacher will come or not.
  • They will take him out if you agree.
  • We can cook if he brings the material.

g) Subordinating conjunction of comparison  ( comparison)

E.g. 

  • She could solve the paper as we told her.
  • You are better than we think.
  • They can fight better than a lion.

h) Subordinating conjunction of concession

E.g.

  • Though he was ill, he could drive.
  • She is weak enough although she won.
  • Though they are strong, we beat them.  

FORMS OF CONJUNCTIONS:

  • Correlative Conjunctions
  • Compound Conjunctions

A) Correlative(s)/ Conjunction:

We use Either-or, neither-nor, and both-and as correlative conjunctions which surround the words/phrases that relate to each other.

These are the primary correlative conjunctions in English:
both . . . and,   either . . . or,   neither . . . nor,   not . . . but,   not only . . . but also,   as . . . as, just as . . . so,     the more . . . the less,   the more . . . the more,   no sooner . . . than,   so . . . as, whether . . . or

Examples:

  1. I not only played well but also got the first position.
  2. She is neither happy nor angry.
  3. We both love and honor him.
  4. The more we study hard the more we learn.
  5. She came so late as we denied her.

B) Compound Conjunctions:

We use compound conjunctions as phrases, where several words together act as joiners.

Examples:

  1. The notice was published over the weekend in order that all might know the facts.
  2. The teacher will forgive you on condition that you do not repeat the offense.
  3. Even if it were just, we would like that.

Note: Coordinating conjunctions usually form looser connections than other conjunctions do.

Examples:

  • She was late for the class, and his teacher cut his marks.           ( very loose)
  • Monk was late in class, so his teacher cut his marks.          ( loose)
  • Because she was late in the class, his teacher cut his marks.

MORE RELATED SENTENCES.

KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS.

TRANSITIONAL WORDS.

FIGURE OF SPEECH.

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