The present perfect tense:
Tenses are generally the basic element of the English language which every speaker must know. We have three perfect tenses. Which are really important. Present Perfect tense, Past perfect tense, and Future perfect tense. They are talking about three different times. We will study the present perfect tense over here.
It is used to talk about an action that started in the past and finished in past or finished just before now but the outcome is in the present. Briefly, if we define it: an action that started in the past and finished in the past but the result is in the present.
Structure of the present perfect tense:
A) Positive structure/ positive formula:
Subject + has/have +3rd form of the verb + object/ complement.
- I have done my homework.
In this sentence, the ‘homework is done’ in the past or it might have been completed just before now but the result is ready in the present and is submitted to the teacher/ tutor.
- He has done his easy.
- She has cleaned the garden.
- You have jumped over the table.
- They have read the book.
- We have driven the car.
B) Negative structure / negative formula:
Subject + has/have + not + 3rd from of the verb + object/ complement.
- He has not done his easy.
- She has not cleaned the garden.
- You have not jumped over the table.
- They have not read the book.
- We have not driven the car.
Note: while changing a positive sentence into a negative the third form remains the same we should not change it to 1st form like other simple tenses.
C) Interrogative structure / Interrogative formula:
formula: Has / have + subject +3rd from of the verb +object/complement.
- Has He done his easy?
- Has she cleaned the garden?
- Have you jumped over the table?
- we use ‘have’ with plural and has with singular
- Have they read the book?
- Have we driven the car?
D) Negative-interrogative structure / Formula
Hasn’t/ haven’t + subject + 3rd form of the verb + object of complement.
- Hasn’t He done his easy?
- Haven’t you jumped over the table?
- Hasn’t she cleaned the garden?
- Haven’t they read the book?
- Haven’t we driven the car?
Note: Mostly we get confused using present perfect tense because it is used for the following activities:
- continuing situation
1-We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experiences from the past. We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:
- He has lived in Kashmir.
- She has gone to Italy.
The present perfect tense is used to talk about a change or new information:
- I have bought an iPhone x pro.
- We have made the cake.
- They have designed the cake.
The present perfect tense is often used to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is a state (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.
- I have worked in this company since last year.
- She has been out for 2 days.
- For how long have you known Tara?
“for” and “since” Is used with the present perfect tense which talks about duration and period of time.
For: it is used for a duration of time
- I have worked here for 2 years.
- She has been for twenty minutes.
since is used to talk about a point in a past time like 9 o’clock, 1st January.
- He has worked here since 1st January.
- I have been here since 9 o’clock.